Project lists

Integrated Forest Ecosystem Management Planning and Demonstration Project in Greater Mekong Sub-region (Pu'er Project Site, P.R.China)
25 Feb 2020     


Project overview


Project title: Integrated Forest Ecosystem Management Planning and Demonstration Project in Greater Mekong Sub-region (Pu'er Project Site)[ 2016P1-GMS-PE]  

Supervisory agency: Forestry Bureau of Pu'er Prefecture, China

Executing agency: Wanzhangshan Forest Farm, Pu'er Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China  

Budget in USD (total / APFNet grant):  1,094,022  /  740,306  

Duration:  January 2017 to December 2021, 60 months, on track

Site Location: Wanzhangshan Forest Farm, Pu'er Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China

Contact:  Li Xianze, Pu’er Simao Wanzhangshan Forest Farm (

APFNet: Xin Shuyu ( Sun Weina(


Fig. 1 Taiyanghe National Protected Area




The Lancang-Mekong watershed has abundant forest resources and rich biodiversity. Approximately 60 million people live in the Lower Mekong Basin, with many of them relying on forests to sustain their livelihoods. However, the river basin faces threats, such as significant deforestation and forest degradation.

In order to improve sustainable forest management (SFM) in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), APFNet initiated a series of projects focusing on integrated forest ecosystem management among six  economies in the region, that is Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand and Chinese Yunnan. A network of site-specific demonstration sites along the Lancang-Mekong River will be established to showcase different forest management models and test forest management plans (FMPs) on the ground, assessing the extent to which they meet the socio-economic and ecological goals for different types of forests.

Pu’er prefecture, located on the upper reaches of the Mekong River in Yunnan, Southwest China, is a major timber production area. For decades, conflicts between forest conservation and use have challenged both policy-makers and practitioners. The lack of comprehensive long-term FMPs and technical insufficiencies have further exacerbated the situation - even on its biggest forest farm—Wanzhangshan Forest Farm.

Producing Medium- and Long-term Forest Management Plans

The biggest forest farm in Pu’er Prefecture, Wanzhangshan Forest farm has managed forests in the area for 18 years. The farm’s forest land is owned by the district-level government, but the forests themselves are managed by a local business in a cooperative fashion and according to the guidelines laid out by the government. Since its establishment in 2001, forest stock increased by 0.35 million m3, and forest cover now reaches 91.8%. However, due to the lack of a long-term plan, inflexible operational mechanisms, and lack of resilience of forest farms on a national level, in 2015 the Chinese government officially rolled out a reform targeting all state-owned forest farms. Under this reform, the major objective now is to cultivate and preserve the national forest resources, and it is officially stressed that the forest farms should develop their own long and medium-term management plans, which are currently mostly lacking.

Following the reform’s new development requirement, Wanzhangshan Forest Farm had to earnestly think about its development goals in the long run.

Therefore, responding to the situation, APFNet helped to develop a 20-year (2017-2036) integrated forest ecosystem management plan, which is to provide integrated planning for the shorter and longer term on aspects such as forest ecology, forestry industry, forest health, institutional matters and training of personnel. Additionally, a more detailed 10-year implementation plan (2017-2026) to realize the objectives of the long-term management plan on the ground was written.

These plans will serve as frameworks to inform policy-makers and guide practitioners, and increase the ecological, social and economic benefits of the forest farm in the long term, while also serving as a model for its partner economies in the GMS region.

Forest rehabilitation of local tree species through tending——demonstration for Pinus kesiya and Betula alnoides


Pinus kesiya and Betula alnoides are two common local species in Yunnan, and thus also on Wanzhangshan Forest Farm. For a long time, the two tree species have been managed extensively, which greatly lowered their productivity and ability to provide ecological benefits. 


Fig. 2 Pinus kesiya plantations

Aiming to establish SFM models under different conditions, 120 ha of demonstration sites consisting of 3 different stands (40 ha each) of Pinus kesiya and Betula alnoides under commercial and non-commercial forest tending were established.

The objective of the demonstration sites focused on non-commercial forest tending is to improve ecosystem services, while the commercial forest tending aims to maximize forest productivity, while also restoring biodiversity to certain degree.


With tending techniques, such as thinning, pruning and fertilizing the three stands, namely 1) a middle aged P. kesiya (13 years old) non-commercial forest, 2) a young P. kesiya (7 years old) commercial forest, and 3) a young Betula alnoides (6 years old) commercial forest, were each treated with 4 different cutting intensities ranging from 15% to 50% crown cover removal. After thinning, both economically and ecologically valuable indigenous broadleaved trees were planted in the forest gaps. Afterwards the stands will be monitored annually for the duration of the project.




Photo 1-2 shows the effects before and after forest tending of Betula alnoides commercial forest; photo 3-4 shows the effects before and after forest tending of Pinus kesiya non- commercial forest.



Project Objectives

1. to develop the Master Plan of Integrated Forest Ecosystem Management and the Forest Management Action Plan and conduct scientific planning and effective management in the project site WFF, and act as a demonstration of integrated forest ecosystem management;

2. to establish integrated forest ecosystem management demonstration plots, and select the optimal forest management models based on evaluation of advanced techniques and best practices;

3. to set the project site as a role model on integrated forest ecosystem management in GMS through project dissemination and capacity building.

Expected Outputs


1. “Master Plan of Integrated Forest Ecosystem Management of WFF, Pu'er Prefecture (2017-2036)”, “Forest Management Action Plan of WFF, Pu'er Prefecture (2017-2026)”;

2. Establishment of forest tending demonstration for young-middle aged Pinus kesiya and Betula alnoides forest stand; 

3. Construction of efficient resin production demonstration plot and development of effective resin collection technical manual;

4. Demonstration establishment of integrated secondary forest management;

5. Construction of precious plant collection garden of south-subtropical region;

6. Capacity building through trainings and communications.









Project Document.pdf




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