Project lists

Construction of Multifunctional Forest Management Demonstration Sites - Phase I
25 Feb 2020     

Construction of Multifunction Forest Management Demonstration Sites - Phase I


Project Title

Construction of Multifunction Forest Management Demonstration Sites - Phase I

Supervisory Agency

Chifeng Forest Bureau, Inner Mongolia, China

Executing Agency

Wangyedian Forest Farm

Budget in USD (APFNet/total grant amount)


Site Location

Wangyedian Forest Farm, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China


Wangyedian: Ma Chenggong (

APFNet: Li Zhaochen (

Project Duration

09/2011 – 05/2015


To construct demonstration sites of multifunctional forests in different forest types;

To formulate a protection and collection plan for non-timber forest products;

To construct demonstration sites of community co-management in forest farm;

To promote sustainable forest management and improve capacity building in the forest farm;

Expected Outputs

- Develop 1 forest resource information management system, 1 general affairs information management system of forest farm, 1 financial information management system;

- Manage 466 ha of forests with different forest types under close-to-nature forest management;

- Grow non-timber forest products, e.g. edible fungi to promote forest multifunctional management.

- Build demonstration sites of community co-management in forest farm;

- Construct the Multifunction Forestry Training Center, training 200 technical personnel, 400 forest farmers yearly.




The Wangyedian Forest Farm


In the past decades China has made a name for itself as one of the economies with the largest reforestation programs globally. While the re-establishment of green cover in China is not finished, it is time to look beyond just planting trees. Both historical conditions as well as available knowledge and technologies have limited the silvicultural sophistication with which these forests could be re-established. As a result, China’s current planted forests are largely consisting of monocultures, with impeded ecosystem functions and limited biodiversity. Such is the case in Wangyedian Experimental Forest Farm in Inner Mongolia. Government authorities have recognized the need to introduce new management practices that value community participation and utilize multiple forest functions, to ensure the sustainable production and health of the forest.


In 2011, APFNet launched the first phase of the project ”Construction of Multifunctional Forest Management Demonstration” in Wangyedian Forest Farm, demonstrating a multi-functional forest management approach and exploring how economic, social and environmental benefits can be balanced and enhanced, both at the site and in the wider region. The project developed a forest management plan incorporating close-to-nature forest management (CNFM) principles and extended the planning phase from five to ten years. Additionally, a separate management plan for non-timber forest products was developed. Next, plots were selected to be managed under multi-functional close-to-nature forest management while employing co-management mechanisms for the forest farm and the local community. In order to ensure the success of this cooperation, capacity building for the local communities was offered.


Promoting Sustainable Forest Management

- Forest Management Planning

Good forest management is the result of thorough and comprehensive planning. Forests, as long-living and slow-growing as they are, require a long-term vision to ensure the right measures are applied early on. The project firstly supported Wangyedian Forest Farm to develop a stand-level operational ten-year forest management plan (2013-2022) which incorporates SFM principles and NTFP production. Additionally, a separate management plan for non-timber forest products was developed.

- Close-to-Nature Forest Management

Close-to-Nature Forest Management (CNFM) originated in Germany and is based on the idea of managing a forest by working with nature instead of against it. The results are mixed, structurally diverse forests that are in a much better position to deliver a multitude of forest ecosystem services such as water filtration, timber and non-timber forest products. The CNFM principle was demonstrated in Wangyedian with the goal of transforming monocultures to mixed forests. These monocultures in Wangyedian consist largely of larch (Larix principis-ruprechtii) and Chinese Pine (Pinus tabuliformis) plantations. By applying different CNFM techniques, such as target tree selection, cutting competitor trees, assisted natural regeneration or enrichment planting with local species, the forest can be slowly converted into a multi-aged, diverse forest with a structural and species composition mimicking that of a natural forest in later successional stages.


Fig. 1-2 Before (2011) and after (2014) of Betula platyphylla thinned with CNFM, through which as a result Pinus koraiensis regenerated well


In the project three different forest types were treated with CNFM methods, specifically:

Forest type



Prince Ruprecht’s larch (Larix principis-ruprechtii) plantations

226.7 ha

young to mature

Chinese Pine (Pinus tabuliformis) plantations

173.3 ha

young to mature

Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) natural secondary forest

100 ha

middle aged to mature


Communities’ participation and local livelihood improvement

The forest farm and community co-management system

Wangyedian Forest Farm, together with APFNet, attempted to establish a forest farm and community co-management system. For this Andangou ( 按丹沟), a village with about 2,800 people, was selected as a demonstration village. A village co-management and coordination committee was established and a ten-year village-level co-management plan was developed. As the parts of the forest land belonging to the villagers are under their full jurisdiction, the plan for those parts was based on their management goals with the help and consultation of the forest farm. Overall, the forest area managed under this plan covers 1,200ha and is divided into 15 management units. Forest rangers from the forest farm and villages patrol and manage those forests together.


Forest Fire Prevention and the Forest Fire Crew

In order to effectively prevent and control forest fires, the forest farm set up the Forest Fire Crew, a team of forest fire rangers monitoring the forest farm, divided into 6 sub-areas. This crew consists of employees from the forest farm and people from local communities, together creating a semi-professional firefighting and prevention ream.


Non-Timber Forest Productions (NTFPs)

Wangyedian has a range of NTFPs, considering that 741 species of vascular plants and 162 species of macro fungi (including both edible and medicinal fungi) can be found on the farm area. Since 2012, under the support of APFNet project, the forest farm and the Aromatic Fungi Ltd. signed the cooperation agreement, and a type of “symbiosis” was formed: the forest farm provides thinning and logging slash of suitable species to the mushroom farm and local communities. This type of slash is necessary for making mushroom spawns, on which the mushrooms grow. For the local communities the company is an important employment opportunity, in the case of Aromatic Fungi Ltd. employing 20 people as full-time staff and about 85 cooperative members who are involved in managing various aspects of mushroom growing or collecting wild mushrooms. 




1. Location of Wangyedian Forest Farm



2. Map of Wangyedian Forest Farm