29-31 October, 2012 


Beihai City, Guangxi, China


Mangrove forests are a unique ecosystem type interfacing land and the sea. The loss of mangrove ecosystems and biodiversity will disproportionately affect the livelihoods of the poor resulting from scarcity of clean water resources, vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change impacts and food insecurity, and thus jeopardizing the achievement of Millennium Development Goals.

Southeast Asia including Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia and Viet Nam is the global centre of mangrove biodiversity, representing 33.5% of the total global population and 71% of mangrove species in the world.  Conversely, 26.5% of the mangrove cover in this area is lost from 1980-2005 due to conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp farming and aquiculture, overexploitation for timber and fuel wood, coastal development and land reclamation, pollution, invasive alien species, etc.

Major international and national efforts to conserve mangroves include on-site conservation of biodiversity by setting up mangrove protected areas, integrated marine and coastal area management, sustainable use, restoration and afforestation, etc. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) particularly calls for restoration of 15% of degraded ecosystems by 2020, echoed by the Global Partnership on Forest & Landscape Restoration (GPFLR) committed to restore 150 million hectares of lost forests and degraded lands worldwide by 2020, and Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) targeting to contribute to increase in forest cover in the APEC region by at least 20 million hectares of all types of forests by 2020 through rehabilitation, reforestation and afforestation.

While ambitious as the targets are, there is an urgent need to provide for incentives for implementation in both on-site conservation and restoration for the results of intervention to be sustainable. Market incentives to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases offer an opportunity for developing economies to reduce emission from deforestation and forest degradation. Despite investment in mangrove services has high potential, few proved mechanisms exists.


The objective of the workshop is to identify locally adaptive alternative uses of mangrove forests to provide for community subsistence for wider replication region wide while avoiding further loss and degradation of mangrove ecosystems and services on, and explore feasibility and capacity needs for sustainable financing mechanisms and certification of aquaculture as an incentive to achieve co-benefits of biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Meanwhile, the workshop also seeks to:

  • communicate with national and local government officials, private sectors and users of mangrove services on supporting and regulating services of mangrove forests in addition to provisioning services and opportunity costs of their conversion; 
  • taking advantage of the regional expertise by international organizations, IFIs and NGOs as well as center of excellence, build consensus on conservation of the existing mangrove forests and rehabilitation of the degraded mangrove forests for the co-benefits of social, economic and environment aspects based on understanding of the threats to mangrove forests and driving forces among donors and governments to achieve sustainable management of the mangrove forests in the region; and
  • build and strengthen partnership with players active in the practice areas to achieve the target of increasing forest cover in the APEC region by at least 20 million ha of all types of forests by 2020.

Workshop Design

The workshop will last three days including a half day field trip. Presentation starts with an understanding of regional perspectives and governance framework of each economy, followed by case studies of good practice in livelihoods programs without losing mangrove stocks and successful restoration models. Incentives to sustainably managed mangroves will also be presented. A half day is earmarked for group work to produce road map for good governance, identification of gaps and the needs, and future cooperation in the region.

Target Participants

  • Officials at national and local levels, managers of mangrove forests from mangrove forested economies;
  • Private sectors interested in financing sustainable development of mangrove forests in the region;
  • NGOs and academia with track record of engaging community development and sustainable mangrove management and rehabilitation;
  • Donors and international organizations interested in mangrove forest management and rehabilitation;

Workshop Outputs

  • Road map to achieve the targets of increasing mangrove coverage and reduce deforestation through market mechanisms and carbon credits; and
  • Frame work for establishing the regional mangrove forest management network, with project sites selected in the region to update and share information, and better demonstrate and promote practical incentives that help sustain the management of mangrove forests and raise livelihood of those dependent on mangroves.

Working language


Sponsors and Organizers

The workshop will be sponsored by APFNet, co-sponsored by IUCN, PEMSEA, ITTO, TNC and WWF. Guangxi Mangrove Research Center (GMRC) of China will facilitate to organize the workshop.